To make things simple serotonin represents a happiness hormone. Moreover, evidences have backed the mood-enhancing qualities of serotonin. This important neurotransmitter of the serotonergic system- Serotonin displays numerous effects. Besides, monitoring the CNS (Central Nervous System) it also impacts the working of various neurotransmitters and also our digestive mechanism. Do you know that almost 90 percent of serotonin has its origin inside the gut!.
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Diverse Functions Performed By Serotonin
The human system utilizes neurotransmitters to carry out different functions that interact all over the CNS. Serotonin also figures as a chemical messenger generated inside the brain and a major part of the gastrointestinal tract. It functions to control mood, hunger cravings, nausea, sleep cycles, bone wellness, emotions and even sexual activity.
The production of Serotonin takes place through a transformation procedure from essential amino acid like tryptophan and enzymes such as Tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) that synthesizes serotonin. Lack of Tryptophan in our food regimen can lead to decrease in serotonin level. This would lead to low mood, anxiety and other mood-related disorders. Tryptophan is available in foodstuffs like nuts, yogurt, fish, eggs and cheese.
These are briefly some of the tasks that serotonin performs
- Produces Melatonin that is a sleep regulator
- Adjusts Appetite
- Regulates Body Temperature
- Controls motor and cognitive function
- Interferes with dopamine and the hormone that also works as a neurotransmitter known as noradrenalin
- Handles the sleep-wake cycle
- Moderates sexual desire
Viewed chemically, a serotonin is a derivative of 5-hydroxytryptamine and is also known as 5-HT. Serotonin attaches to the serotonin receptors also known as 5-HT receptors. There are seven such receptors recognized by scientists. Barring the receptor 5-HT3, an ion channel that is ligand-gated, the rest of the 5-HT receptors are G-protein-coupled membrane receptors. Many of the drugs and medications that influence our body through the serotonin mechanism are either agonists or stimulators of the serotonin receptors or antagonist that curbs their work.
How CBD Affects The Serotonergic System
As has been proven, CBD influences our serotonin system. Definitively, CBD fastens to the serotonin receptors with specific intensity, but displays feeble to moderate compatibility with various other receptors. It is quite interesting that CBD reveals a limited affinity towards its own endocannabinoid system receptors!
The special equation between CBD and serotonin (5-HT) emerges from the fact that CBD can bind to different receptors and the varied role that serotonin enacts in our body. In the brain, by mimicking serotonin CBD binds and stimulates the 5-HT1A serotonin receptors that contributes significantly towards the anti-anxiety properties of CBD. Such an effect have led to the notion of CBD as a mechanism for addiction rehabilitation.
Researchers at the King’s College in London have detected that sufficiently high CBD dose can cause sedative effect that results from their impact on the ECS (endocannabinoid system). Further, it also happens from the binding by CBD at 5HT1A receptor of the serotonin system. Amazingly, the same research also indicated no direct influence of CBD on receptors B1and B2 of the endocannabinoid.
More advanced studies have displayed that CBD can be considered to be a mild agonist of the 5HT1A receptor which is linked with anxiety, hunger cravings, addiction, aches, nausea and sleep. Anandamide – the indigenous endocannabinoid which our body produces is also an agonist of the 5HT1A receptor. Considering the effect of CBD in elevating the presence of anandamide within the nerve synapses, one can say that the impact of cannabidiol on the 5HT1A receptor takes place in two ways.
Other Pharmacological Targets Of CBD
Another primary “pharmacological target” of CBD is the 5HT2A receptor of the serotonergic system that are widely dispersed within the CNS (Central Nervous System). This receptor regulates anxiety, headaches and even psychedelic experiences that relates to temporary level of altered consciousness. Psychedelic drugs like LSD and also mescaline are its effective agonists. CBD displays a lesser adjustment with 5HT2A, and acts as a weak antagonist that explains its antipsychotic as well as calming properties that helps in moderating the psychotic influence of THC.
CBD also includes the 5HT3A receptor inside the serotonergic system in its pharmacological target. This receptor manages mood swings, pain signaling as well as nausea. 5HT3A antagonists are utilized for treating nausea resulting from chemotherapy. The plant compound, CBD is a powerful negative allosteric modulator (NAM) meaning that it slows down the binding of the ligands resulting in decreased activity.
In fact, CBD alters the channel structure in a manner that this receptor becomes less “eager” to bind serotonin. Anandamide the endogenous cannabinoid also displays the same property. Based on the direct influence of CBD on the receptor 5HT3A and its effect on the lowering of anandamide, it can be said that a small portion of the anti-vomiting property of CBD can be linked to the serotonergic system.
Moreover, CBD can also function by controlling the indigenous neurotransmitter metabolism of the serotonin system. It regulates through negotiating with the function of raphe nuclei that is a primary serotonin production region. Increased functioning of the endocannabinoid mechanism through an incremented supply of anandamide due to CBD results in the generation and release of serotonin that boosts the entire body mechanism.
Another way in which CBD oil raises the supply of serotonin is by not stimulating the negative response loop. The serotonergic mechanism does not identify CBD as its type as a result of which there is no serotonin reuptake or halt in its production. More productively, more serotonin is retained inside the synapses due to the presence of CBD.
Final Thoughts on
The impact of CBD on various neurotransmitter system that transmits signals between two cells are very important for your health. In fact, the most potent effect of CBD are on your endocannabinoid and serotonin mechanism. Moreover, researchers have also recognized the impact of CBD on the pain and gene triggering receptors, enzymes and proteins as well. CBD has proved itself to be a versatile compound anyhow, as when it is ingested along with THC, it can buffer its negative influence on your ECS. Further, when CBD is consumed alone, it naturally raises your endocannabinoid balance and also safeguards your ECS receptors from over-activation.